Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or avoid a disease or issue. Bone marrow transplant is the most widely utilized stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Study is underway to develop a variety of sources for stem cells, as nicely as to apply stem-cell treatment options for neurodegenerative ailments and problems this kind of as diabetes and heart disease, amongst others.
Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments this kind of as the capability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells making use of somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of tactics to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often associated to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market place treatment options primarily based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.
For in excess of 30 many years, bone marrow has been utilized to treat men and women with cancer with problems this kind of as leukaemia and lymphoma this is the only kind of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced. Throughout chemotherapy, most increasing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, even so, can not discriminate among the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells inside of the bone marrow. It is this side result of typical chemotherapy techniques that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to change the cells lost in the host’s physique throughout remedy. The transplanted cells also create an immune response that helps to destroy off the cancer cells this method can go as well far, even so, leading to graft vs host disease, the most critical side result of this remedy.
Another stem cell therapy known as Prochymal, was conditionally accredited in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in young children who are unresponsive to steroids. It is an allogenic stem therapy primarily based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of grownup donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to ten,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until necessary.
The FDA has accredited 5 hematopoietic stem-cell goods derived from umbilical cord blood, for the remedy of blood and immunological ailments.
In 2014, the European Medicines Company recommended approval of limbal stem cells for men and women with significant limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.